Dairy At Glance
Dairy Education: Need and Necessiti

Dairy Education: Need and Necessities in view of the globalization

 

Dr.Sudhir Uprit

Professor and Head (DT)

College of Dairy Technology

Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur(C.G.)

sudhir_uprit@yahoo.com

Dr.K.C.P.Singh

Dean

College of Dairy Technology

Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur(C.G.)

profkcpsingh@yahoo.com

Globalization  of Indian economy and trade was initiated in early 1990s and  got reinforced in year 1994 with the signing of the Uruguay Round Agreement  on Agriculture (URAA) in 1994.This process of globalization has brought integration of domestic markets with the world economy  and increasingly stringent food safety and quality standards. The major policy events towards the trade liberalization during the post – operation flood and post reform phase (1990 onwards) represented the significant shift in dairy sector policy by opening up markets. The time to time introduction and amendments of regulations like MMPO helped in faster growth of the dairy industry. The competition in the dairy sector within the organized and private sector increased drastically, in terms of milk processing capacities. The removal of the restriction of the import and export of most of livestock products opened the protectionist environment of Indian dairy industry.

These events lead to significant changes in the structure and performance of dairy industry. All though lot is achieved by the globalization but lot more is still to be achieved due to increasing income, demand of quality livestock product and urbanization.

With the globalization in dairy industry shift in milk production strategies is necessary to ensure quality milk production. Quality of raw milk has direct impact on quality of product prepared from it. Globalization has open up the world market for Indian Dairy Products. Export of these product need to pass through the strict quality standard .To achieve this it is necessary to control the quality of milk at grass root level itself.

Production of clean and safe milk is highly needed for the safety of consumer and also to make the product competitive at national and global level. However the livestock farmers who are mostly spread in villages and are away from access to information technology are by and large ignorant and not quality conscious. This leads to create awareness among the dairy farmers, extension functionaries and office bearers about the measure to be taken for quality and clean milk production.

1 ) Promotion of clean milk production/quality assurance by introduction of  machine milking at organized  dairy and  at collection      center(Community milking)

2) Complete automation of collection centers with provision of  bulk milk cooler, milko tester,  and computerized billing and record  keeping at district, tahsil, block and panchayat levels in order.

3) Promotion of chilling centers in consonance with the rise in production of milk Private participation to be encouraged by providing infrastructures such as land and interest free loan

4) In rural areas propagating the identified village practices for enhancement of keeping quality in out reach villages.

5) Village level quality assurance and control through strengthening of existing laboratories

6) Establishment of Certification labs

7) Awareness capacity building

8) Premium pricing policy

With this background following areas are identified for discussion in light of the present status and changes which are required in dairy education in light of globalization of dairy industry.

 

Human resource development

Adoption of the latest & advanced dairy and value addition technology in milk processing can minimize losses, provide better quality, nutrition and more employment opportunities. Dairy technology, offer promising option for value addition and resource recovery in terms of consumer food availability and simultaneously more earning at farmers and industry level. There is large scope for milk industry to grow in view of the globalization and increasing purchasing power of consumers. This will further increase the requirement of dairy technologist and researchers.

The graduates passing out today do not match the requirements of emerging market. Globalization and demand led market necessitate a relook at the content and delivery of curricula and curriculum delivery such that the graduates coming out not only meet the expectations of different stake holders but also be propeller of agricultural growth. For India to occupy pre-eminent position in the international market, it is important that our graduates also remain in the forefront of developing new technologies and disseminate them to the farming community.

At present 12 colleges in the country are offering undergraduate program in Dairy Technology.

Sr.No

College and university

Courses/Degree offered

1

College of Dairy Science, KVAFSU, Hebbal (Karnataka)

B.Tech,M.Tech.

2

College of Dairy  and Food Science and Technology, MPUAT, Udaipur (Rajasthan)

B.Tech

3

Dairy Science College, WBUAFS, Mohanpur (West Bengal)

B.Tech

4

Sanjay Gandhi Institute of Dairy Technology, RAU, Patna (Bihar)

B.Tech

5

College of Dairy Technology, PDKV, Warud (Maharastra)

B.Tech

6

College of Dairy Technology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh)

B.Tech, M.Tech/M.Sc,Ph.D

7

Dairy Technology programme, College of Veterinary Science, SVUFAS, Tirupati (Andhra Predesh)

B.Tech

8

College of Dairy Science & Technology, KAU, Mannuthy(Kerela)

B.Tech

9

College of Food & Dairy Technology, AAI Allahabad(UtterPredesh)

AAI Allahabad B.Tech

10

Sheth MC College of Dairy Science, AAU, Anand(Gujarat)

B.Tech, M.Tech/M.Sc,Ph.D

11

College of Dairy Science, NDRI, Karnal(Haryana)

B.Tech, M.Tech/ M.Sc,

Ph.D

12

Institute of Food and Dairy Technology, Chennai

B.Sc. (Food and Dairy Technology)

While going through the admission procedure and course curricula of various Dairy Science Colleges, it was observed that admission in majority of colleges is through entrance test, where as in few colleges it is on the basis of marks in qualifying examination. In course curricula the theory and practical contents of the syllabus were more or less same but variability exists in duration and nature of in-plant training. Few dairy science colleges provide one-year in-plant training, where as others provide only for a period of six months. Some Dairy Science Colleges send their students for one month summer training. However, complete duration of course is four years in all the colleges. There is external examination pattern in majorities of the colleges to an extent of 60 percent. In view of the inconsistency observed in dairy science college of the country following measures need to be addressed

 

Uniformity in title of the colleges

One of the major difference observed in various colleges involved in dairy education is their nomenclature. Some of the colleges are known as College of Dairy Technology others are known as College of Dairy Science. Different titles of the college create problems in generating correct image about the college and its activities in common peoples. This indirectly affects the quality of the student taking admission in these colleges. It is therefore suggested to have the college with similar nomenclature for creating a correct image of the institute and its subject matter.

Students training

At present students of Dairy Science Colleges, NDRI, Karnal and SMC College of dairy Science,GAU,Anand are doing I year in plant training in training dairy plants associated to their own institutions (Model Dairy ,Karnal and Vidya Dairy,Anand).Where as, students of other  dairy science/technology colleges  undergo in plant training in various commercial dairy plants of the country to acquire state of art of technology through exposure to actual field conditions. The duration of training varies from 4 -6 months. Training in theses plants is conducive in enhancing linkages between academic institution & industry and for more job opportunity to outgoing students.

Looking to the needs of the globalization there is a need of more systematic and symmetrical in plant training programme. An effective blend of in campus and off campus training may help in developing  professionalism and self confidence in dairy technocrats. Introduction of objective oriented in plant training particularly when, students will go for training in commercial plants, may help in attaining the aims of in plant training. The student must be asked to complete project work during in plant training, which may be based on industry specific problems. By means of such objective oriented training industries can also utilize the services of technocrats in generating information for the areas which are untouched in the industry.

 

Student training dairy plant

The undergraduate and post graduate degree programme are heavily practical oriented. In absence of a mini dairy plant students are not familiar with adequate practical knowledge as per the course curriculum. The in campus training is possible with well equipped training dairy plant.  Since separate learning training dairy involves huge budgetary allocation. Provision of fund at national level is to be made so that different college meets the minimum standard. The training dairy needs to be tied up with the concept of profitability along with training and education. Possibility of public private partnership (PPP) in running, maintenance of plant and marketing of milk and milk product at the college level dairy plant can be explored for the purpose.

Dairy extension and dairy business management

Grass root level presence of the dairy technology is very meager. Awareness towards the quality milk production and value addition is possible through the technocrats of dairy technology. Awareness towards this profession will also help in generating entrepreneur at different levels. It is therefore proposed to strengthen dairy extension and dairy business management in every college as a part of confidence building and entrepreneurship development.

Non-formal education

Efficient working in processing plant is possible only with the personals having sound technical background. It is felt that the middle level workforce is not up to the desired values.  Non formal education is one of the alternatives to address this problem. It is therefore advised to inculcates non formal education as a necessary part of Dairy Science Colleges. Every dairy technology colleges should undertake non formal education and prepare electronic study materials for users and industries in various aspects of dairy technology such as milk and milk product packaging and quality assurance system, unit operations and value addition in dairy products, clean milk production, indigenous dairy products, recent advances and present state of arts of Dairy technology, energy efficient dairy processing technologies, specialty foods, cheese and fermented milks, fluid milk processing, fat rich products, ice-cream and frozen desserts etc. A certificate course of four to six months may help in filling up the gap. This will also help in developing lower level entrepreneur as a part of employment generation

Regulating body for dairy education

College of Dairy Science can be divided in to two categories. Category A in which college have full fledged facilities in terms of labs, staff and training dairy. Category B will include the underdeveloped college which is still striving for certain basic facilities in spite of attracting quite a good stuff of students with basic background of Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics. The number of Category B colleges are significantly more then Category A college because of the fact that under the college of Karnal and Anand only qualifies for category A. Since the graduates of the category B colleges are performing good enough due to their own capacities and hard work, it is essential to improve the conditions of these colleges. In absence of any regulating authority State Government and Other such agencies become reluctant in terms of development and filling up of post. It is proposed to formulate a high-powered agency which can act as VCI/MCI for Dairy technology colleges.

The expending dairy industry, privatization of enterprise and globalization of economy resulting in an increased demand for peoples trained in specific areas of dairying. The futuristic dairy industry of india would aim at dairy products which are safe, healthy, tasty, pure, convenient and offered at reasonable price. A great deal of responsibility therefore lies on the academic and research institutions of the country. To provide know how and make available knowledgeable well trained manpower to face the challenges that the fast growing dairy industry to pose. We have to look beyond the short term vision to a long term of India would aim at dairy products in view of the globalization.

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Akshay Sadana