Dairy At Glance
Advancement In Prevention And Control Of Diseases In Dairy Animals

Advancement In Prevention And Control Of Diseases In Dairy Animals

Dr. Sunant K. Raval1 and Dr. Suchit S. Pandya2

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary College, AAU, Anand

  1. Professor, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary College, AAU, Anand
  2. Senior Research Fellow, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Co AAU, Anand

 

Health management has been defined as the promotion of health, improvement of productivity and prevention of diseases. For health management and effective disease prevention veterinarian must integrate consideration of nutrition, housing and whole management system into recommendation of best practices. The interconnected nature of the components of diseases reduced animal performance. Disease control programmes are established with the aim of eradication of agents at a country, zone and compartment level.

Disease control programmes may range from simple mitigation of disease impacts to progressive control or eradication of the disease. For controlling the diseases we have to summarize current knowledge about the epidemiological situation within the country, providing detailed information on situation of the disease, disease impacts (animal and public health, food safety, food security, biodiversity and socioeconomic impact). In case of zoonotic diseases, close collaboration and coordination with public health authorities is necessary during programme planning and implementation. The programme should include an ongoing review to assess the effectiveness of intervention that are being applied. Identify gaps in knowledge and adapt the goals, objectives and methods or actions as required. The control programme should take into consideration the distribution cost and benefits among different stakeholders and understand the factors limiting stakeholders participation in programme activities. (OIE, 2014).

The underpinning of the disease control programme is an effective surveillance system that provide guidance on priorities and targets for the application of interventions. The surveillance system should consist of general surveillance activities reinforced by pathogen specific activities. The programme should be supported by diagnostic facilities with adequate capability and capacity. Depending on the epidemiological situation, the pattern of animal movements, the occurrence of wildlife reservoirs, population density and production systems within the country, targeted vaccination may be more effective than systematic mass vaccination. Vaccination campaigns should include serological monitoring of the vaccine for effectiveness.Vaccinated animals should be adequately and permanently marked to allow traceability when relevant in the context of the control programme.When a validated strategy to differentiate infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) is available, its use should be considered.A vaccine quality assurance programme ensures the purity, safety, potency and efficacy of vaccines. Vaccines used within control programmes should be licensed. Effective delivery of vaccine, including maintenance of the cold chain and proper administration, is essential for achieving an adequate level of population immunity. This could require the implementation of governmental and/or private schemes that include quality assurance controls of vaccine distribution (OIE, 2014).

Health and Productivity Schemes:

  • The traditional role of the veterinarian has been to attend individual seek animals when requested to do so by the owner. Such attention called fire brigade treatment.
  • This approach was useful when most diseases, such as classical epidemic infectious diseases had predominantly single cause and responded to a simple course of treatment.
  • First it became clear that diseases needed to be controlled by simultaneously manipulating all determinants
    • Those associated with Agent
    • Host and
    • Enviornment
  • The veterinarian objectives should to prevent and to treat diseases
  • Secondly it became necessary to consider disease in terms of its contribution to reduced performance (Thrushfield, M. 2007)

Objectives:

  • Identify disease and productivity constraints problem on a farm
  • Rate the problem in order of importance reference to technical and economic criteria
  • Initiate suitable control technique and measure their success, not only technically but also regard to the economic efficiency of the utilization of resources at the national and individual level, thereby indicating which technique should be increased and which reduced

Components:

              There are differences between the schemes applied to different species, but the principles are same. The main components of the scheme are

  • Recording of a farm profile comprising details of animal numbers, buildings and feeding systems, stocking density, nutrition, usual management practices, disease status and current level of production.
  • Identification of production shortfalls
  • Monitoring of all aspects of production
  • Identification of major disease problems
  • Routine prophylaxis against major diseases
  • Advice on management and husbandry to achieve the predetermined targets
  • Detection of unacceptable shortfall in production
  • Correction of shortfalls by eliminating defects
  • Identification of farmers’ perception of strength and weakness in health, fertility and nutrition.

Dairy health and productivity schemes

  • The main objective of a dairy is to improve welfare and productivity by maintaining health, milk yield and milk quality on the farm
  • Optimum yield and quality are achieved by
    • Efficient reproduction
    • Decreasing important diseases
    • Optimum feeding – both nutritionally and economically (Thrushfield, M. 2007)

Disease Prevention and Control by Bio sensors and wearable technologies:

  • This technique is becoming increasingly important for animal health management
  • This devices if built precisely and used correctly can provide timely diagnosis of diseases in animals and thus decrease economic losses
  • On site sensor can provide reliable  data about the physical condition of the animals
  • Due to the superior performance of wearable technologies and sensors, they can make a breakthrough in livestock promises to become one of the most impactful practicable technology in AH market
  • Global growth of this sector in the next ten years has been predicted to 0.91 dollars to 2.6 billion dollars (Harrop, P., 2016).

Sensors & wearable technologies can be implemented to animals to detect their

  • Detect sweat constitutes (Neethirajan et., 2016, Wenget al., 2015(i), Wenget al., 2015 (ii))
  • To measure body temperature (Sellier et al., 2014, Jensen-Jarolim, E. and Flaschberger, I. 2016, Nogamiet al., 2014)
  • To observe behavior & movement (Van Nuffelet al., 2015, Sa, J. et al., 2015)
  • To detect stress (Lee et al., 2015)
  • To analyze sound (Kim el al., 2015, Ferrari et al., 2008, Berckmanset al., 2015, Broom et al., 2015, Fontana and Tullo, 2015, Exadaktyloset al., 2014)
  • Biosensors device that attaches to ears to measure body temperature
  • Biosensors collars are being used in cows for detection of estrus period
  • Electronic leg bands that interact with sensors mounted on the animal to record data on its feeding and milking behavior pattern.

Detecting subclinical ketosis using microfluidic biosensors (Neethirajan, S.)

  • Microfluidic technology is an effective way for on farm detection of diseases
  • The microfluidic chip design was created using AutoCAD software and made by following the Standard Software Lithography Protocol
  • The developed biosensors used the Spectros-copic principle of the absorbance of U.V. in 445-455 nm range.
  • The βHBA concentration in samples is depicted by the intensity of the light signals transmitted by the Silicone photodiode.
  • Detailed analysis of the light absorption was performed by a custom built optical biosensors
  • Thus it is rapid with high sensitivity biosensors(Wenget al., 2015(i)), (Wenget al., 2015 (ii))

Saliva Analyzer:

  • Biological fluids of living beings like tears, sweat and saliva can be used in testing health and detecting pathological conditions
  • Noninvasive monitoring of uric acid in saliva can be done using a mouth guard with an integrated screen printed electrode system
  • Uricase enzyme utilized in this system
  • Information is transmitted to laptop and smartphone where the information can be processed and stored
  • This mouth guard biosensor is highly selective and stable for uric acid detection in saliva
  • Monitoring lactate variation in saliva is another practice to detect health condition in animal
  • Materials like carbon nanotubes and graphene can be employed in the production and promotion of such healthcare related technologies
  • Wearable “Lab on a Chip” system are gaining popularity among animal handlers (Neethirajan, S., 2017)

References:

A. Van Nuffel, I. Zwertvaegher, S. VanWeyenberg, M. Pastell, V.M. Thorup, C. Bahr, B. Sonck,W. Saeys. (2014). Lameness detection in dairy cows: Use of sensors to automatically register changes in locomotion or behavior. Animals, 5(3): 861–885.

D. Berckmans, M. Hemeryck, D. Berckmans, E. Vranken, T. van Waterschoot. (2015). Animal sound talks Real-time sound analysis for health monitoring in livestock, Proceeding Animal Environment and Welfare, October, 2015. Pp. 215–222.

D.M. Broom, A.F. Fraser. (2015). Domestic Animal Behaviour and Welfare, CABI, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. Pp. 101–125.

Garcia, S.O., Ulyanova, Y.V., Figueroa-Teran, R., Bhatt, K.H., Singhal, S. and Atanassov, P. (2016). Wearable sensor system powered by a biofuel cell for detection oflactate levels in sweat. Eur. J. Sol. State Tech, 5(8): M3075–M3081.

H. Kim, J. Sab, B. Nohc, J. Leed, Y. Chung, D. Park. (2015). Automatic identification of a coughing animal using audio and video Data Proceedings of The fourth International Conference on Information Science and Cloud Computing (ISCC2015). 18–19 December 2015. Guangzhou, China, 2015 (Online at http://pos. sissa. it/cgi-bin/reader/conf. cgi? confid= 264, id. 8).

H. Nogami, H. Okada, T. Miyamoto, R. Maeda, T. Itoh. (2014). Wearable wireless temperature sensor nodes appressed to base of a calf's tail, Sensor. Mater. 26(8): 539–545.

Harrop, P. (2016). Wearable technology for animals: technologies, markets, forecasts. IDTechEx. Pp. 2017-2027.

Heikenfeld, J. (2016). Bioanalytical devices: technological leap for sweat sensing, Nature, 529: 475–476.

I. Fontana, E. Tullo, A. Scrase, A. Butterworth. (2015). Vocalisation sound pattern identification in young broiler chickens. Animal. Pp. 1-8.

J. Lee, B. Noh, S. Jang, D. Park, Y. Chung, H.H. (2015). Chang, Stress detection and classification of laying hens by sound analysis, Asian. Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 28: (4): 592.

J. Sa, M. Ju, S. Han, H. Kim, Y. Chung, D. Park. (2015). Detection of low-weight pigs by using a top-view camera, Proceedings of The fourth International Conference on Information Science and Cloud Computing (ISCC2015), 18–19 December 2015 (Guangzhou, China. Online at http://pos. sissa. it/cgi-bin/reader/conf. cgi? confid=264, id. 24).

Jensen-Jarolim, E., Flaschberger, I. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,282,725. Washington DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

N. Sellier, E. Guettier, C. Staub. (2014). A review of methods to measure animal body temperature in precision farming. Am. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. 2(2): 74–99.

Neethirajan, S. (2017). Recent advances in wearable sensors for animal health management. Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research, 15: 15-29

Neethirajan, S.; Weng, X.; Chen, L. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,316,591. 2016, Washington, DC: US Patent & Trademark Office

OIE. (2014). Guidelines for animal disease control. Pp. 1-9.

S. Ferrari, M. Silva, M. Guarino, J.M. Aerts, D. (2008). Berckmans, Cough sound analysis to identify respiratory infection in pigs. Comput. Electron. Agric, 64(2): 318–325.

T. Glennon, C. O'Quigley, M. McCaul, G. Matzeu, S. Beirne, G.G. Wallace, N.Stroiescu, N. O'Mahoney, P. White, D. Diamond. (2016). ‘SWEATCH’: a wearable platform for harvesting and analysing sweat sodium content, Electroanalysis, 28: 1283–1289.

Thrushfield, M. (2007). Veterinary Epidemiology. Blackwell publishing, 3rd reprinted edition. Pp. 368-379.

V. Exadaktylos, M. Silva, D. Berckmans, in: H. Glotin (Ed.). (2014). Automatic identification and interpretation of animal sounds, applications to livestock production optimization. In soundscape semiotics-localization and categorization, In Tech, Rijeka, Croatia. Pp. 65–83.

X. Weng, L. Chen, S. Neethirajan, T. Duffield. (2015). Development of quantum dots-based biosensor towards on-farm detection of subclinical ketosis, Biosens. Bioelectron. 72: 140–147.

X. Weng, W. Zhao, S. Neethirajan, T. Duffield. (2015). Microfluidic biosensor for β hydroxybutyrate (βHBA) determination of subclinical ketosis diagnosis, J. Nanobiotech, 13(1)

 

 

Selection of Breed for Goat Farming

There are numerous goat breeds available in India. But all goats are not suitable for commercial production. Some goat breeds are highly productive and very suitable for commercial farming in India.

  • Jamunapari Goat: Jamunapari goat is a native goat breed of India. It is a highly milk and meat productive goat. But they are raised mainly for their highly milk production capacity. A female goat can produce about 2-3 litter milk daily. An adult male weights about 65-90 kg and female goat weights about 40-60 kg.
  • Boer Goat: Boer goat is a South African goat breed but suitable for farming in India. They are meat productive goat breed. And adult Boer goat weights about 110-115 kg and a female goat weights about 90-100 kg.
  • Black Bengal Goat: Black Bengal goat is a Bangladeshi goat breed. This goat breed is considered as an important small livestock in Bangladesh. They are very suitable for meat, milk, skin and fiber production. This goat breed can adopt themselves with almost all types of climate easily. Their meat and milk are very tasty and has a great demand.
  • Beetal Goat: Beetal goat is a native Indian goat breed. They are highly milk productive goat breed. Also suitable for highly meat production. They are able to produce about 2.5-4 litter milk daily. An adult male goat weights about 65 kg and female about 45 kg.
  • Saanen Goat: Saanen goat is a dairy goat breed of Switzerland. But suitable for commercial milk production in India. They can produce milk highly like Jamunapari and Alpine goat. They are able to produce about 3.8 litters milk daily. An adult male Saanen goat weights around 70-90 kg and female around 60-70 kg.